Skip to Main Content

Hekman Library logoHekman Library

Reference Collection

Library guide to the Reference collection, both print and online

Welcome to the Library Guide for Reference!

This guide will give you an introduction to our library's general reference collection. (It does not include information about the Theological Reference Collection.) Reference books are to be used for introductions and overviews of a topic, and our collection has books on every subject taught at Calvin. Reference books may be checked out of the library for a limited time

This short video will introduce you to reference sources, which typically give a good background and basic information on topics.

*Video may be slightly out of date due to renovation construction and website redesign in 2023 - newer content coming soon*

Types of Reference Books

The reference collection contains atlases, bibliographies, biographical sources, subject encyclopedias, books of facts, directories, language dictionaries, and more. These books generally contain many short entries that provide summaries, definitions, illustrations, directions, and quick facts. You won't read them from cover to cover but instead select one entry on a topic.

Examples (all are printed books unless indicated otherwise):

Major E-Book/E-Reference Collections

What about Wikipedia?

Students know from experience how valuable Wikipedia can be when looking for quick background information about almost any topic. However, professors and librarians often say that Wikipedia articles should not be cited in papers. One reason for this has to do with the function of reference works. Encyclopedias typically provide only basic background information and not in-depth analysis. Other professors may disagree and say that some encyclopedia articles may be cited. Reference works vary greatly in nature, with some having more detail, context, and analysis than others. For example, the Smithsonian’s multi-volume Handbook of the North American Indian (print) and the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (online) are works of scholarship. If you get more than basic information from an encyclopedia or other reference work, you should consider citing it.

Perhaps the best advice is that Wikipedia can be useful as a starting point for many topics, especially obscure ones or those with a niche interest. Some articles are rich in detail, context, analysis, references, and suggestions for further reading. A rough rule of thumb, perhaps, is to be wary of articles on controversial or popular topics such as the Holocaust, but more trusting of articles on people, events, artistic works, social movements, etc., that you may not find in-depth anywhere else. A good example of a richly detailed Wikipedia article that engages the scholarly conversation is the one on the “American Frontier.” In some cases, Wikipedia articles will be as rich in detail and analysis as specialized works.

Wikipedia is a bit like "The Wild West" of scholarship. So, let the buyer beware!


(The text and ideas in this section come from Will Katerberg, Professor of History and Curator of Heritage Hall at Calvin University).

How to Cite Reference

Articles from reference books should be cited in the following way:

  • MLA:
    • (online source) Ortega, Robert M., and Roxanna Duntley-Matos. "Cultural Sensitivity in the Context of Cultural Humility." Encyclopedia of Social Work. July 30, 2020. NASW Press and Oxford University Press. 
    • (print source) "Ideology." The American Heritage Dictionary. 5th ed. 2011. Print. 
  • APA:
    • (online source) Ortega, R., & Duntley-Matos, R. (2020, July 30). Cultural Sensitivity in the Context of Cultural Humility. Encyclopedia of Social Work. Retrieved 1 Dec. 2020, from
    • (print source) Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. (2011). Ideology. In The American Heritage Dictionary (5th ed., p. 427).
  • Chicago:
    • (online source) Ortega, Robert M., and Roxanna Duntley-Matos. "Cultural Sensitivity in the Context of Cultural Humility." Encyclopedia of Social Work. 30 Jul. 2020; Accessed 1 Dec. 2020.
    • (print source) Not necessary to create a reference list entry for well-known reference works. Use author-date style in the body of your paper. For less well-known reference works, follow this template: Author Surname, Author Forename. Title. City: Publisher, Year published.

For more citation help, check out our Citation 101 guide. You can also get in-person help on citations from Hekman librarians and from Rhetoric Center consultants.